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Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. As a contraceptive, spermicide may be used. In order for people to avoid anal when they don't want to have it, and to have good anal when they do, we have to provide clear-cut, pleasure-based sex education and. Donald Trump's win followed a campaign that revealed deep divisions that were as wide and in some cases wider than in previous elections.
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Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm , inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. As a contraceptive, spermicide may be used alone.
However, the pregnancy rate experienced by couples using only spermicide is higher than that of couples using other methods. Usually, spermicides are combined with contraceptive barrier methods such as diaphragms , condoms , cervical caps , and sponges.
Combined methods are believed to result in lower pregnancy rates than either method alone. The most common active ingredient of spermicides is nonoxynol Spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 are available in many forms, such as jelly gel , films, and foams. This list of examples was provided by the Mayo Clinic .
Nonoxynol-9 is the primary chemical in spermicides to inhibit sperm motility. Active secondary spermicidal ingredients can include octoxynol-9, benzalkonium chloride and menfegol. Preventing sperm motility will inhibit the sperm from travelling towards the egg moving down the fallopian tubes to the uterus.
In fact the deep proper insertion of spermicide should effectively block the cervix so that sperm cannot make it past the cervix, to the uterus, or the fallopian tubes. Bartman and et al. Menfegol is a spermicide manufactured as a foaming tablet. Octoxynol-9 was previously a common spermicide, but was removed from the U.
The spermicides benzalkonium chloride and sodium cholate are used in some contraceptive sponges. Chiang for proving it is not. Lemon juice solutions have been shown to immobilize sperm in the laboratory,  as has Krest Bitter Lemon drink.
No published studies appear to have been done on the effectiveness of lemon juice preparations in preventing pregnancy, though they are advocated by some as 'natural' spermicides.
Lactic acid preparations have also been shown to have some spermicidal effect, and commercial lactic acid-based spermicides are available. Extractives of the neem plant such as neem oil have also been proposed as spermicides based on laboratory studies. Spermicides are believed to increase the contraceptive effectiveness of condoms. However, condoms that are spermicidally lubricated by the manufacturer have a shorter shelf life  and may cause urinary-tract infections in women.
However, they recommend using a nonoxynol-9 lubricated condom over no condom at all. Spermicides used alone are only about 70 to 80 percent effective. Temporary local skin irritation involving the vulva, vagina, or penis is the most common problem associated with spermicide use.
It described a pessary of crocodile dung and fermented dough. It recommended mixing seed wool, acacia, dates and honey, and placing the mixture in the vagina. It probably had some effectiveness, in part as a physical barrier due to the thick, sticky consistency, and also because of the lactic acid a known spermicide formed from the acacia.
Writings by Soranus , a 2nd-century Greek physician, contained formulations for a number of acidic concoctions claimed to be spermicidal. His instructions were to soak wool in one of the mixtures, then place near the cervix.
Laboratory testing of substances to see if they inhibited sperm motility began in the s. Modern spermicides nonoxynol-9 and menfegol were developed from this line of research. Especially after the prohibition of contraception in the U.
Worse, many manufacturers recommended using the products as a douche after intercourse, too late to affect all the sperm. Medical estimates during the s placed the pregnancy rate of women using many over-the-counter spermicides at seventy percent per year.
Spermicides have been around for a long time. Ancient Egyptians used to use them to regulate family size and pregnancy. Spermicide remedies included ingredients like acacia gum, sour milk, crocodile dung and natron minerals were mixed with plant fibers and honey and formed into a pessary.
This acacia derivative successfully prevented sperm entry into the cervical mucus, disrupted spermatozoa plasma membrane and disintegrated the acrosomal cap. Today it is understood that the more acidic the vagina is, sperm death is increased due to a hostile environment. A misconception about spermicides existed in the s and s. A literature review article noted that in vitro studies of nonoxynol-9 and other spermicides showed inactivation of STD pathogens, including HIV.
Currently available spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 are ineffective as microbicides, in particular as HIV-preventive measures. Furthermore, frequent use more than 2 times a day of spermicide causes more vulvovovaginal epithelial disruption, 18 which theoretically could increase susceptibility to HIV. In a high-risk population using a vaginal gel with nonoxynol-9 more than three applications per day on average, the risk of HIV acquisition was increased compared with placebo.
Disadvantages and cautions Local irritation Temporary skin irritation involving the vulva, vagina, or penis caused by either local toxicity or allergy to the formulation is the most common problem associated with spermicide use Although vaginal epithelial disruption has been associated with frequent use twice a day or more of spermicides containing N-9, this is usually asymptomatic.
In a low risk population, long-term use of N-9 containing methods was not associated with epithelial disruption. Spermicides in vitro Laboratory studies have shown that nonoxynol-9 and various commercial spermicidal products inactivate a variety of STD pathogens, 14 including HIV. In one study, HIV inactivation occurred within 60 seconds of exposure to a nonoxynol-9 concentration of 0. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In Hatcher, Robert A.
Contraceptive Technology 20th revised ed. Retrieved April 1, Archived from the original on Food and Drug Administration.
Cervical Barrier Advancement Society. Archived from the original on July 8, Effect of 'Coke' on sperm motility". Macmillan Publishers, Scientific and Medical Division. Archived from the original PDF on Woman's Natural Health Practice. Archived from the original on June 1, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved August 6, Retrieved April 16, Over-the-counter vaginal contraceptive and spermicide drug products containing nonoxynol 9; required labeling".
The Past, Present, and Future of Contraception". Contraception Online Baylor College of Medicine. Archived from the original on September 26, Centennial College journalism students. Archived from the original on February 25, Journal of Social History.
B Mahato May American Journal of Public Health. Birth control methods G02B , G03A. Comparison of birth control methods Long-acting reversible contraception. Breastfeeding infertility LAM Calendar-based methods rhythm, etc. Fertility awareness Billings ovulation method Creighton Model , etc.